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There ESPecially Convincing Evidence for ESP?
perception (ESP) is regarded as the sixth sense, or the sense of the
mind. The term was coined by Joseph Banks (J.B.) Rhine, a psychologist
at Duke University to describe psychic abilities, clairvoyance,
precognition and retrocognition. Rhine was one of the first
psychologists to study the unknown ability of ESP through the use of
cards. He asked participants to predict which cards were drawn without
looking. His research culminated in the publication of a book called
“Extra Sensory Perception” which showed data that he believed
enough of ESP.
paved the road for a field of study that had been missing from science.
After his decades of research, other psychologists were encouraged to
explore the mind and build the
case for scientific psychic ability, including
the infamous Daryl Bem of Cornell University. Here are his findings.
White Queen Test
of the most famous psychology studies of the psychic mind was dubbed
the White Queen. The White Queen test according to Bem determined
can feel the future.
test involved giving participants a set of 48 nouns drawn from
different categories such as food, animals, and clothes. Each word
flashed on the screen for three seconds and after, the participants had
to write all the words they could remember. Then, Bem showed the
participants half of the original words and told them to type the words
into the computer. His results showed that, in the first test, the
participants were able to recall words that would be asked of them in
2011, Bem conducted another test to determine the ability of ESP. He
showed participants digital images of two curtains. He told them that
behind one of the two curtains was an image, and they had to determine
which one it was. However, one group of participants received an erotic
image while another group received an image of a non-erotic image if
they clicked the right curtain.
results concluded that the group that was assigned to non-erotic images
picked the right curtain 49.8 percent of the time, which is fairly
close to the percentage of chance. However, the group with erotic
images managed to find the correct curtain 53.1 percent of the time. He
believed that this was significant enough to provide evidence for the
reality of ESP.
tests provide a small amount of evidence to show that there may be
signs of psychic abilities. However, it is not enough to provide a
burden of evidence, and other scientists that have replicated his
studies have failed to receive the same results.